Automated Immunochemical Analysis of Specific s-Triazine and Phenylurea Herbicides in Drinking Water Supplies

Petra M. Krämer

GBF - Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Mascherocler Weg 1, 38124 Braunschweig, FRG 

Article history:

Received June 30, 1997
Accepted April 7, 1998

Key words:

automation, biosensors, flow injection analysis, herbicides, immunochemical analysis, water monitoring, stabilization 


The demand for natural food colourants is increasing because of public awareness of their health benefits. Betalains are nitrogen-containing plant pigments whose colours range from red-violet betacyanins to yellow betaxanthins. They are used for colouring dairy products, meat and frozen desserts. Betalains have attracted additional interest because of their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. The main source of commercially produced betalains is red beet root, but alternative sources are found in plants from the Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae families. Another alternative source is plant cell culture in bioreactors, although optimization of pigment production seems necessary. In this paper we synthesize the results of recent studies on betalain biosynthesis, chemical properties, sources, biotechnology and applications.

*Corresponding author: 

Search FTB

Follow us

 facebook 1 twitter bird_icon LI In Bug


QR Code


We use cookies to improve our website and your experience when using it. Cookies used for the essential operation of the site have already been set. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

I accept cookies from this site.

EU Cookie Directive Module Information