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Properties and Fermentation Activity of Industrial Yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. uvarum, Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus Exposed to AFB1, OTA and ZEA

Željko Jakopović1*orcid tiny, Karla Hanousek Čiča2orcid tiny, Jasna Mrvčić2orcid tiny, Irina Pucić3orcid tiny, Iva Čanak1orcid tiny, Jadranka Frece1orcid tiny, Jelka Pleadin4orcid tiny, Damir Stanzer2orcid tiny, Slaven Zjalić5orcid tiny and Ksenija Markov1orcid tiny

1Department of Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3Department of Materials Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska cesta 143, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
5Department of Ecology, Agronomy and Aquaculture, University of Zadar, M. Pavlinovića 1, HR-23000 Zadar, Croatia

Article history:
Received: 27 October 2017
Accepted: 17 January 2018

Key words:
mycotoxins, yeasts, yeast growth, yeast morphology, fermentation, FTIR

In this paper the effect of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenon on morphology, growth parameters and metabolic activity of yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces uvarumCandida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus was determined. The results showed that the three mycotoxins affected the morphology of all these yeasts, primarily the cell diameter, but not their final cell count. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the yeast membranes bound the mycotoxins, C. utilis in particular. The cell membranes of most yeasts underwent denaturation, except S. uvarum exposed to ochratoxin A and zearalenone. In the early stage of fermentation, all mycotoxin-exposed yeasts had lower metabolic activity and biomass growth than controls, but fermentation products and biomass concentrations reached the control levels by the end of the fermentation, except for C. utilis exposed to 20 μg/mL of zearalenone. The adaptive response to mycotoxins suggests that certain yeasts could be used to control mycotoxin concentrations in the production of fermented food and beverages.

*Corresponding author:  tel3  +38514605123

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