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Sourdough Fermentation of Carob Flour and Its Application to Wheat Bread

Dubravka Novotni1orcid tiny, Nika Mutak1orcid tiny, Ljiljana Nanjara2orcid tiny, Saša Drakula1orcid tinyNikolina Čukelj Mustač1*orcid tiny, Bojana Voučko1orcid tiny
and Duška Ćurić1orcid tiny

1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

2University of Applied Sciences ‘Marko Marulić’, Petra Krešimira IV 30, Knin, Croatia

Article history:

Received: 10 July 2020

Accepted: 23 December 2020

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Key words:

antioxidant activity, carob sourdough, dietary fibre, partially baked frozen bread, total phenolics


Research background. Carob is widely cultivated Mediterranean plant, but its flour is scarcely used in bread-making. Previous studies investigated the quality of wheat bread with added carob flour showing discrepant results. This study aimed to investigate the fermentation performance, antioxidant activity, rheological behaviour, and baking application of carob sourdough. 

Experimental approach. Carob sourdough was fermented with Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus fermentum combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 24 h at 30 °C. At the end of sourdough fermentation number of viable lactic acid bacteria and yeast cells, titratable acidity, pH value, antioxidant activity, phenolics and sugar content of sourdough were determined. Carob flour (12 % of flour mass) or sourdough equivalent (22.5 % of dough mass) was applied in making composite partially baked frozen bread. Dough rheology was monitored using a farinograph. Rebaked bread samples were evaluated for nutritive value, physical properties, and sensory attributes using a hedonic test.

Results and conclusions. By the end of fermentation, carob sourdough reached pH 4.2-4.5 and total acidity 9.9-12.3 mL of 0.1 M NaOH, sugar content was reduced for 8 g/100 g d.m, while total phenolics and antioxidant activity were increased up to 21 %, depending on the starter culture. Addition of carob flour or sourdough to wheat dough resulted in higher consistency, longer development time, and lower quality number. Regardless, bread with carob flour had significantly improved specific volume of bread. Compared with common wheat bread, carob breads had increased dietary fibre content (46 %), total phenolics (140-200 %) and antioxidant activity (240-300 %), higher shape, reduced crumbliness, unchanged firmness, and darker crumb colour. Consumers’ preference and overall acceptability scores of carob sour breads were comparable to those of wheat bread, falling into the category of 'liking very much'.

Novelty and scientific contribution. To our knowledge, this is the first study that proved the feasibility of carob sourdough fermentation using mixed starter cultures, where L. brevis associated with S. cerevisiae was better adapted to the substrate than L. fermentum. The carob sourdough could be used as a natural ingredient for improvement of nutritive value and reduction of crumbliness of partially baked frozen bread.

*Corresponding author: +38514605167

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Antioxidant Capacity of Proteins and Hydrolysates from the Liver of Newborn Piglets, and Their Inhibitory Effects on Steatosis in vitro

Ruilin Zhangorcid tiny, Lasheng Yinorcid tiny, Jian Chenorcid tiny and Xuewu Zhang*orcid tiny

College of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 510640 Guangzhou, PR China


Article history:

Received: 7 February 2020

Accepted: 22 December 2020

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Key words:

newborn piglet liver, protein hydrolysates, antioxidant activity, oleic acid, lipid accumulation


Research background. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a potentially progressive hepatic disorder that can lead to end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The inhibitory effects of proteins and hydrolysates from the liver of newborn piglets on hepatic steatosis in oleic-acid-induced HepG2 cells were investigated in vitro.

Experimental approach. The extracted proteins from the liver of newborn piglets (NPLP) were hydrolysed with papain, pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase. Based on comparison of different enzyme digestion condition, a protein hydrolysis protocol was established to obtain hydrolysates with lipid-lowering effect.

Results and conclusions. PLH-trypsin (trypsin-digested NPLP hydrolysate) exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possessed good inhibitory effects on lipogenesis and cholesterol accumulation in HepG2 cells at 150 μg/mL, with a triglyceride decrease of (43±3) % and cholesterol decrease of (31±5) %, comparing with 0.75 mM oleic acid induced model. The addition of NPLH-trypsin (300 μg/mL) decreased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and increased superoxide dismutase activity.

Novelty and scientific contribution. This study demonstrated that NPLH-trypsin have a potential preventive effect on NAFLD in its early stage, and NPLH-trypsin has potential use as the modulator of lipid overaccumulation disease in food supplements.

*Corresponding author: +86 20 87113848
  +86 20 87113848

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Phenylalanine Alleviates Postharvest Chilling Injury of Plum Fruit by Modulating Antioxidant System and Enhancing the Accumulation of Phenolic Compound

Ommol Banin Sogvar1orcid tiny, Vali Rabiei1*orcid tiny, Farhang Razavi1orcid tiny and Gholamreza Gohari2orcid tiny

1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, University Blvd., 45371-38791, Zanjan, Iran

2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Daneshgah Blvd., Madar Square, 83111-55181, Maragheh, East Azarbaijan, Iran

Article history:

Received: 25 March 2020

Accepted: 2 December 2020

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Key words:

antioxidant capacity, chilling injury, phenylalanine, plum fruit, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL)


Research background. Low temperature storage causes chilling injury in plum (Prunus domestica L.) fruits. Consequently, any treatments with beneficial effects on these symptoms would achieve attention. For this purpose, phenylalanine treatments were applied on ‘Stanley’ plum fruits. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the exogenous application of phenylalanine on fruit quality, chilling tolerance, and antioxidant capacity of ‘Stanley’ plums during cold storage.

Experimental approach. Phenylalanine at different concentrations were applied on ‘Stanley’ plums. Following phenylalanine application, plums were cold stored. Chilling injury, antioxidant capacity, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, proline, and internal contents of anthocyanin, flavonoids, phenols, ascorbic acid, and some antioxidant enzymes were assessed.

Results and conclusions. Phenylalanine treatment significantly alleviated chilling injury in plum fruits by enhancing antioxidant capacity and increasing the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL). Phenylalanine-treated fruits had higher levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, flavonoids, and phenols, as well as a higher total antioxidant activity, than the control fruits during low temperature storage. Phenylalanine at 7.5 mM was the most effective treatment in enhancing the activity of PAL and the accumulation of phenolic compounds and in reducing the severity of chilling injury. Treatments delayed mass loss and maintained fruit firmness. In addition, the application of 7.5 mM phenylalanine improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), decreased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, and increased the endogenous content of proline. Moreover, phenylalanine maintained membrane integrity, manifested by a reduced electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde accumulation.

Novelty and scientific contribution. In the current study, chilling injury had a positive correlation with the activities of PAL and antioxidant enzymes. However, negative correlations were observed between chilling injury and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity. Considering the results, phenylalanine treatment could be spotted as an encouraging approach to alleviate the severity of chilling injury and thus preserve nutritional quality of plums during low temperature storage.

*Corresponding author: +982433054549

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Characterization of Collagen from Sakhalin Taimen Skin as Useful Biomass

Takeshi Nagai1,2,3*orcid tiny, Masataka Saito4, Yasuhiro Tanoue5, Norihisa Kai6 and Nobutaka Suzuki7

1Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Yamagata University, 9978555 Yamagata, Japan

2The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, 0208550 Iwate, Japan

3Graduate School, Prince of Songkla University, 90112 Songkhla, Thailand

4Kagawa Nutrition University, 3500288 Saitama, Japan

5Department of Food Science and Technology, National Fisheries University, 7596595 Yamaguchi, Japan

6Department of Integrated Science and Technology, Oita University, 8701192 Oita, Japan

7Nagoya Research Institute, 4701131 Aichi, Japan

Article history:

Received: 7 April 2020

Accepted: 17 December 2020

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Key words:

Sakhalin taimen skin, useful biomass, collagen, succinylation, improvement of functional property


Research background. Animal collagen has been widely utilized in foods, cosmetics and biomedical fields. The non-edible parts, such as fish skin and bones, are generated during cooking processes. Most of them are currently discarded as waste, although the nutritional values of the skins and bones are high. It needs to utilize the non-edible parts for the reduction of environmental impact, as it may be one of source of environmental pollution.

Experimental approach. Collagen was prepared from Sakhalin taimen skins as wastes generated during cooking processes. Next, the colour, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet absorption, subunit composition, amino acid composition, denaturation temperature, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis were conducted to explore the properties of the collagen. Lastly, it tried to improve the functional properties of the collagen using chemical modification technique for future applications.

Results and conclusions. Cold acetone treatment made it possible to easily remove the fats and pigments from skins. The odorless and pure-white collagen was obtained with high-yield. The α3 chain did not exist in the collagen. Sakhalin taimen skin collagen had rich α-helix and low β-sheet structures. Succinylation caused the secondary structural changes of the collagen molecule. Moreover, succinylation made it possible not only to increase the viscosity of collagen solution and but also to improve the solubility of collagen in the physiological conditions around pH=6.

Novelty and scientific contribution. This finding was the first report on the absence of the α3 chain in Salmonid fish skin collagens. The succinylated collagen from Sakhalin taimen skin as useful biomass has potential to utilize in foods, cosmetics, and its related industries.

*Corresponding author:

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Enhanced Microencapsulation of C-Phycocyanin from Arthrospira by Freeze-Drying with Different Wall Materials

Wanida Pan-utai1*orcid tiny and Siriluck Iamtham2,3,4,5,6orcid tiny

1Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

2Department of Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand

3Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand

4Center of Excellence on Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok 10900, Thailand

5Center for Advanced Studies in Tropical Natural Resource, NRU-KU, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

6Research Unit of Orchid Tissue Culture, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand

Article history:

Received: 2 January 2020

Accepted: 2 December 2020

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Key words:

phycocyanin, Arthrospira, microencapsulation, freeze-drying, antioxidant properties


Research background. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) as a water-soluble blue pigment was extracted from microalga Arthrospira. C-PC could be a good substitute for synthetic pigments with high antioxidant activity. However, C-PC is unstable due to sensitivity to temperature, light, pH, and oxygen; therefore applications of C-PC in food and other products are limited. Microencapsulation of C-PC using freeze-drying is a solution to this problem and is considered a suitable method for drying heat-sensitive pigment.

Experimental approach. C-phycocyanin was extracted from Arthrospira platensis. C-phycocyanin microcapsules were modified by freeze-drying, with different ratios at 0-100 % of maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA) used as microencapsulation wall materials. The powders produced were evaluated for physical properties including moisture content and water activity, solubility, hygroscopicity, bulk density, colour appearance, particle morphology and size distribution. Thermal stability and antioxidant activity of freeze-dried C-PC microencapsulated powders were also assessed.

Results and conclusions. Freeze-dried C-PC microencapsulated powders with maltodextrin and gum Arabic as wall materials gave high encapsulation efficiency of around 99 %. At higher gum Arabic percentage, moisture content decreased and water activity improved. Maltodextrin gave higher solubility of C-PC powders whereas gum Arabic led to a similar colour of C-PC without microencapsulation. Freeze-dried C-PC microencapsulated powders were composed of different sized microparticles regardless of the combination of wall materials with amorphous glassy shapes. Thermal stability of encapsulated C-PC increased and also showed high antioxidant properties. 

Novelty and scientific contribution. C-PC microcapsules that maintain colourant stability with high antioxidant levels and resistance to high temperatures can be applied in a wide variety of products and also in the food industry.

*Corresponding author: +6629428629

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