Rice (Oryza sativa) Bran and Soybean (Glycine max) Meal: Unconventional Supplements in the Mead Production
Geiza Suzart Araújo1*, Gislane Oliveira Ribeiro2, Sílvia Maria Almeida de Souza1, Gervásio Paulo da Silva3, Giovani Brandão Mafra de Carvalho1, José Ailton Conceição Bispo1 and Ernesto Acosta Martínez1
1Department of Technology, State University of Feira de Santana, Avenida Transnordestina, S/No, 44.036-900, Feira de Santana-BA, Brazil
2School of Agronomy, Federal University of Goiás, Av. Esperança, s/n - Chácaras de Recreio Samambaia, 74.690-900, Goiânia – GO, Brazil
3Department of Education, Bahia State University, Rodovia Lomanto Jr, Br. 407 Km 127, s/n,48.970-000, Senhor do Bonfim – BA, Brazil
Received: 5 February 2021
Accepted: 13 November 2021
rice bran extract; soybean meal extract; commercial supplement; honey must fermentation; mead production
Research background. Due to the lack of nitrogen in honey, fermentation of honey must is limited or delayed, in addition to stimulating the production of unpleasant sensory compounds, such as sulfur derivatives. The use of natural supplements has been investigated as low-cost alternatives mainly to correct the nutritional deficiency of nitrogen in honey must in mead production.
Experimental approach. Initially, the physicochemical characterization of the rice bran and soybean meal extracts was carried out. The fermentation of three yeasts (Saccharomyces bayanus Premier Blanc, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Montrachet and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Safbrew T-58) in honey must supplemented with 30 g/L rice bran or soybean meal extracts was evaluated. The trials were compared with the fermentations of the must with commercial supplement (30 g/L) and the control trials. Fermentations were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks containing honey must with supplements, inoculated with 106 cell/mL yeast and incubated at 30 °C for 264 h.
Results and conclusions. There was significant difference in the evaluated properties of the extracts, with the exception of reducing sugars. The fermentations with soybean meal extract reached the highest cell concentrations, as well as the largest consumption of glucose, fructose and ethanol. The glycerol concentrations slightly increased when soybean meal extract and commercial supplement were used. The highest concentrations of succinic and acetic acids were registered in the control trials produced by Saccharomyces strains Premier Blanc, Montrachet and Safbrew T-58. Formic and lactic acids were not produced. Results showed that the extracts can be used as low-cost alternatives for correcting the nutritional deficiency of nitrogen in honey must since their effect was similar to that of synthetic supplement.
Novelty and scientific contribution. The use of low-cost, unconventional supplements such as those used in this work, in addition to reducing the cost of the process by reducing fermentation time and providing nutrients needed to improve yeast metabolism, prevents the formation of undesirable compounds in the beverage due to prolonged fermentation time. It also makes it possible to add value to industrial by-products. Unconventional supplements have still been little tested in mead production.