Optimization of the Formulation of Prebiotic Milk Chocolate Based on Rheological Properties

Soleiman Abbasi* and Hannaneh Farzanmehr

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-336, Tehran, Iran

Article history:

Received September 27, 2008
Accepted May 20, 2009

Key words:

chocolate, sugar substitutes, simplex-lattice mixture design, rheology, prebiotic


Rheological properties are very important parameters in the production of products with high-quality and desirable texture. So far, many attempts to produce low-calorie milk chocolate have not succeeded. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of sugar substitutes on rheological characteristics of prebiotic milk chocolate using Simplex-lattice mixture design. For doing this, a prebiotic compound (inulin) with two bulking agents (polydextrose and maltodextrin) at different levels (0–100 %) along with sucralose were used. Fifteen formulations covering the entire range of a triangular simplex were examined in order to find the optimum levels. All chocolates showed thixotropic and shear thinning behaviour and among the evaluated mathematical models, Casson model showed the best fitting for predicting rheological properties. According to our findings, chocolate formulations containing high levels of sugar substitutes (where a single component predominated) had higher moisture content, Casson viscosity and yield stress than others, including the control. In contrast, the lowest moisture content, Casson viscosity and yield stress were observed at medium levels. Therefore, the optimum values for substitution of sucrose and production of a low-calorie prebiotic milk chocolate are 8–28 % and 67–86 % for inulin, 0–19 % and 31–69 % for polydextrose and 0–47 % for maltodextrin, respectively.


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