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An Integrated Characterization of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Grown in the North Adriatic Region

Ana Miklavčič Višnjevec1orcid tinyAlenka Baruca Arbeiter1orcid tinyMatjaž Hladnik1orcid tiny, Ajda Ota2orcid tiny, Mihaela Skrt2orcid tiny, Bojan 
Butinar3orcid tiny, Marijan Nečemer4orcid tinyMarin Krapac5orcid tiny, Dean Ban5orcid tinyMilena Bučar-Miklavčič3orcid tinyNataša Poklar Ulrih2orcid tiny 
and Dunja Bandelj1
*orcid tiny

1Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Glagoljaška 8, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, Jamnikarjeva ulica 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3Science and Research Centre Koper, Garibaldijeva 1, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
4Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Ul. Karla Huguesa 8, 52440 Poreč, Croatia

Article history:
Received: 24 June 2018
Accepted: 17 December 2018

Key words:
Ziziphus jujuba Mill., phenolic compounds, antioxidative properties, nutritional properties, antimicrobial activity, genetic diversity


Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has favourable horticultural properties including adaptation to arid conditions, abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as positive impact on human health. The present study describes the characterization of genetic diversity of the germplasm of jujube from the Istrian peninsula, the determination of important chemical compounds, antioxidative properties in relation to antibacterial and antifungal activities of jujube fruit extracts, and the determination of nutritional properties of jujube fruit. The results of the genetic analysis showed that most of the samples from the Istrian peninsula belong to two recently introduced varieties, 'Li' and 'Lang', and the most widespread local variety 'Navadna žižola'. The local variety has smaller fruit than the ‘Li’ and ‘Lang’ varieties, with thick and fleshy mesocarp. Chemical analysis indicated that fruits of the local variety contained a valuable source of dietary fibre ((9.7±0.6) g/100 g) and were rich in minerals such as (in g/100 g dry mass): potassium (829±51), calcium (177±11) and phosphorus (129±19). Aqueous extracts showed slight antibacterial activity, while ethanol extracts had higher mass fractions of phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), 5.8-8.7 mg/g) than the aqueous extracts, but did not show antimicrobial activity. Compounds other than phenolic compounds in jujube fruit may be more biologically active. Based on the results of these analyses, the local Istrian jujube variety is a promising candidate for cultivation potential.

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