White Hop Shoot Production in Slovenia: Total Phenolic, Microelement and Pesticide Residue Content in Five Commercial Cultivars
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1111 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Slovenian Institute of Hop Research and Brewing, Cesta Žalskega tabora 2, SI-3310 Žalec, Slovenia
Received: 1 March 2019
Accepted: 22 October 2019
white hop shoots, hop cultivars, phenolics, antioxidant potential, microelements, active ingredients of pesticides
Harvesting of white hop shoots might be justified if they can be shown to be beneficial to human health. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of hop cultivars and year of production on total phenolics, antioxidant potential, microelements and pesticide residues. Biomass per plant was highly variable among the cultivars (3.1-7.1 g dry mass per plant) and depended on hop cultivar and year (2009-2011). Total phenolics as chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE) on dry mass basis varied from 0.60 to 1.80 mg/g, and showed significant effects across hop cultivar and year. The radical scavenging activities of the samples collected in years 2010-2012 ranged from 11 to 19 μg CAE. Ferric reducing activity was <0.01, with significantly different effects across hop cultivars (pC≤0.05) and year (py≤0.05) observed only in 2012. Traces of microelements and potentially active compounds from the use of pesticides in white hop shoots of Humulus lupulus ‘Dana’ were analysed. The content of zinc in the hop shoots on dry mass basis was very low (4 mg/kg), and it was below the limit of detection in the soil. The content of copper in the hop shoots was also very low (2.3 mg/kg), while in the soil it was below the critical emission (100 vs 300 mg/kg, respectively). All 182 active ingredients from the residues of the previously used pesticides were below the limits of detection. It can be concluded that these white hop shoots are better antioxidants than hop cones and hop leaves, and that they do not contain any pesticide residues.
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