Free Radical Scavenging, Redox Balance and Wound Healing Activity of Bioactive Peptides Derived from Proteinase K-Assisted Hydrolysis of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Skin Collagen
1National Institute of R&D for Biological Sciences, 296, Splaiul Independentei, 060031 Bucharest, Romania
2National Institute for R&D in Chemistry and Petrochemistry – Icechim, 202, Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest, Romania
Received: 21 December 2020
Accepted: 28 April 2022
fish peptides; proteinase K; antioxidant activity; cell migration; oxidative stress
Research background. Various protocols for enzymatic hydrolysis of fish by-products are increasingly tested to ensure value-added products with functional and biological properties important for food, cosmetic and medical applications. In addition, they attempt to minimize waste from industrial processing and environmental requirements. This study aims to establish an efficient protocol based on two-step enzymatic hydrolysis of freshwater fish skin and to evaluate the effect of resulting bioactive peptides on free radical scavenging, redox balance and regulation of fibroblast proliferation and migration.
Experimental approach. Pepsin-soluble collagen extracted from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) skin was hydrolyzed by proteinase K at specific sites under controlled conditions. The molecular mass of ultrafiltration permeate was determined by gradient electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography. The biological activity of intermediate and small size bioactive peptides was evaluated in experimental models in vitro mimicking oxidative stress and skin wound conditions.
Results and conclusions. Extracted fish collagen was hydrolysed using proteinase K, the most efficient enzyme for the cleavage of the primary structure of the molecule, as previously found in silico. Established optimal conditions increased the enzyme specificity and the process yield. Bioactive peptides exerted significantly higher scavenging activity on free stable radicals and hydroxyl radicals often found in vivo, compared to fish collagen. They stimulated fibroblast metabolism in a dose-dependent manner and up-regulated cell migration in a scratch wound model. Pretreatment of fibroblasts with induced oxidative stress using optimal concentrations of fish peptides prevented the increase of reactive oxygen species production. In conclusion, bioactive peptides from carp skin demonstrated valuable properties of maintaining redox balance and skin wound healing process improvement, which indicated further potential applications in the development of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulations.
Novelty and scientific contribution. In this study the enzymatic hydrolysis was applied to isolated protein, in contrast to previous studies using waste tissue with variable composition. Recovered bioactive peptides acted not only as antioxidant agents, but also as regulators of oxidative stress and wound healing processes in skin cell models. Their nutritional and cosmetic application is recommended in novel formulations fighting skin ageing phenomena.
§These authors have equally contributed to this study