Formulation of Novel Liqueurs from Juice Industry Waste: Consumer Acceptance, Phenolic Profile and Preliminary Monitoring of Antioxidant Activity and Colour Changes During Storage
1Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Studentski trg 12, 11158 Belgrade, Serbia
2Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
3Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
Received: 22 April 2020
Accepted: 13 July 2021
pomace liqueur, antioxidant activity, phenolic profile, sensory analysis, circular economy in juice production
Research background. Apple juice is one of the most popular and liked beverages worldwide. Due to the increased health consciousness among consumers, beetroot and chokeberry juices have also rising consumption trends. Despite representing a considerable percentage of the processed fruit and rich source of bioactive compounds, fruit pomace, remaining after juice production, has still been underutilised. Here, the possibility of using apple, beetroot and chokeberry pomace in liqueur formulations is investigated.
Experimental approach. Apple and chokeberry liqueurs were produced from apple and chokeberry pomace extracts, respectively. Apple/chokeberry and apple/beetroot liqueurs were obtained by combining apple pomace with chokeberry and beetroot pomace extracts in ratios 50:50 and 70:30, respectively. The sensory quality and acceptability of freshly prepared liqueurs were evaluated by experts and consumers. Sugars and phenolics were identified and quantified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed-amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–MS/MS), respectively. Storability was preliminarily evaluated based on monitoring of total phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and colour each month during 6 months of storage at 4 and 22 °C.
Results and conclusions. The expert and the consumer testing indicated that apple and chokeberry pomace could be used as raw materials without any flavour corrections while apple/beetroot pomace liqueur would require modification. High total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were found in all freshly prepared liqueurs, with chokeberry liqueur being by far superior. Among identified phenolics, ellagic acid and phlorizin were quantified as the most prominent, except in chokeberry liqueur, where phlorizin was not quantified. Despite the decrease in total phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity after 6 months, liqueurs still represented a rich source of phytochemicals. The highest phenolic compound retention and antioxidant activity maintenance were observed in chokeberry liqueur. Also, the appealing colour was retained despite the changes detected in chromatic characteristics.
Novelty and scientific contribution. The possibility of apple, beetroot and chokeberry pomace restoration into the food chain by the production of liqueurs has been demonstrated for the first time. Functional and sensorial properties of newly developed liqueurs indicated that the selected pomace represents the promising raw material for liqueur production. The applied approach represents a contribution to the circular economy in juice production.