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Application of Spectrophotometric Fingerprint in Cluster Analysis for Starch Origin Determination

Nikola Sakač1*orcid tiny, Maja Karnaš2orcid tiny, Jasminka Dobša3orcid tiny, Marija Jozanović4*orcid tiny, Vlatka Gvozdić4orcid tiny, Elvira Kovač-Andrić4orcid tiny, Marija Kraševac Sakač4orcid tiny and Bojan Šarkanj5orcid tiny

1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Geotechnical Engineering, Hallerova 7, HR-42000 Varaždin, Croatia
2Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Agriculture, Vladimira Preloga 1, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
3University of Zagreb, Faculty of Organization and Informatics, Pavlinska 2, 42000 Varaždin, Croatia
4Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Chemistry, Cara Hadrijana 8/A, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
5University North, Dr Žarko Dolinar Square 1, 43000 Koprivnica, Croatia

Article history:
Received: 7 February 2019
Accepted: 10 March 2020
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Key words:
starch botanical origin, starch-triiodide complex, cluster analysis

The botanical origin of starch is of importance in industrial applications and food processing because it may influence the properties of the final product. Current microscopic methods are time-consuming. Starch consists of an origin-dependent amylose/amylopectin ratio. Triiodide ions bind characteristically to the amylose and amylopectin depending on the botanical origin of the starch. The absorbance of the starch-triiodide complex was measured for wheat, potato, corn, rye, barley, rice, tapioca and unknown origin starch, and within the different cultivars. Each starch sample had specific parameters: starch-triiodide complex peak wavelength maximum (λmax/nm), maximum absorbance change at λmaxA) and λmax shift towards the unknown origin starch sample values. The visible absorption spectra (500-800 nm) for each starch sample were used as a unique fingerprint, and then elaborated by cluster analysis. The cluster analysis managed to distinguish data of two clusters, a cereal type cluster and a potato/tapioca/rice starch cluster. The cereal subclusters extensively distinguished wheat/barley/rye starches from corn starches. Data for cultivars were mostly in good agreement within the same subclaster. The proposed method that combines cluster analysis and visible absorbance data for starch-triiodide complex was able to distinguish starch of different botanical origins and cultivars within the same species. This method is simpler and more convenient than standard time-consuming methods.

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