Increased γ-Aminobutyric Acid Content of Germinated Brown Rice Produced in Membrane Reactor
Azis Boing Sitanggang*, Michael Joshua, Hadi Munarko, Feri Kusnandar and Slamet Budijanto
Department of Food Science and Technology, IPB University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
Received: 7 June 2020
Accepted: 14 July 2021
germinated brown rice, IPB 3S rice variety, membrane reactor, γ-aminobutyric acid, γ-oryzanol
Research background. Rice germination is a natural approach to enhance the physical and functional properties of brown rice. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different germination methods on functional properties of germinated brown rice and evaluate the process feasibility.
Experimental approach. Brown rice of IPB 3S variety was germinated with three different methods: (i) complete soaking without water replacement, (ii) complete soaking with water replacement every six hours, and (iii) complete soaking with continuous washing in the developed membrane-facilitated soaking reactor.
Results and conclusions. The application of the membrane reactor for producing germinated brown rice maintained the pH of the soaking solution relatively constant (i.e. 6.8–7.0). This indicated the circumvention of natural fermentation during brown rice germination. Moreover, the mass fraction of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice produced in the membrane reactor was about 4.5-fold higher (169.2 mg/100 mg) than in ungerminated brown rice (36.82 mg/100 mg), and also higher than that of the other two soaking methods. The γ-oryzanol mass fractions and the antioxidant capacity expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents of germinated brown rice obtained with the three soaking methods varied from 32 to 38 mg/100 mg and 18 to 28 mg/100 g, respectively. Within this study, germination could also slightly reduce the transition temperatures of germinated brown rice starch gelatinization (to=73–74 °C, tp=76–77 °C and tc=~80 °C, where to, tp and tc are onset, peak and conclusion (final) temperatures). In conclusion, the production of germinated brown rice in the membrane reactor could enhance its γ-aminobutyric acid mass fraction and reduce wastewater production and is therefore considered more feasible.
Novelty and scientific contribution. This study demonstrates the feasibility of germinated brown rice production using a membrane-facilitated soaking reactor with enhancement of bioactive compound content, especially γ-aminobutyric acid, and minimised wastewater production.