Dry Fermented Sausages with Total Replacement of Fat by Extra Virgin Olive Oil Emulsion and Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria
Taxiarchoula Magra1*, Nikolaos Soultos1, Chrysostomos Dovas2, Ekaterini Papavergou1, Thomai Lazou1, Ilias Apostolakos1, Georgia Dimitreli3 and Ioannis Ambrosiadis1
1Department of Hygiene and Technology of Foods of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
3Central Research Laboratory for the Physical and Chemical Testing of Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, International Hellenic University, P.O. Box 141, 57400 Thessaloniki, Greece
Received: 26 December 2020
Accepted: 23 June 2021
fat substitute, probiotics, fermented meat products
Research background. Formulations based on vegetable or fish oil and modifications in the production technology of dry fermented sausages have emerged in recent years aiming to achieve the desirable target of reducing the fat content of these meat products. However, previous efforts have confronted many difficulties, such as high mass loss and unacceptable appearance due to intensely wrinkled surfaces and case hardening. The objective of this study was to produce and evaluate dry fermented sausages by utilizing a meat protein-olive oil emulsion as fat substitute and indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic properties isolated from traditional Greek meat products.
Experimental approach. A novel formulation with extra virgin olive oil and turkey protein was developed to totally replace the conventionally added pork fat. Identification and evaluation of the probiotic and safety characteristics of autochthonous LAB isolates from spontaneously fermented sausages were performed and three LAB isolates were finally selected as starter cultures. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out in all treatments (control, L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. sakei and P. pediococcus) during fermentation.
Results and conclusions. Ready-to-eat sausages were found to be microbiologically stable. The olive oil-based formulation produced in this study generated a mosaic pattern visible in the sliced product simulating the fat in conventional fermented sausages and was regarded as an ideal fat substitute for the production of fermented sausages. An autochthonous isolate of Lactobacillus casei exhibited the best adaptation in the final products as it was molecularly identified to be present in the highest counts among the LAB isolates used as starter cultures.
Novelty and scientific contribution. Α novel and high-quality dry fermented meat product was produced replacing added pork fat with a fat substitute based on a meat protein-olive oil emulsion. Autochthonous LAB with in vitro probiotic properties could have a potential use in large-scale novel dry fermented sausages production. Such isolates could be used as starters in an effort to standardise the production process and retain the typical organoleptic and sensory characteristics. Moreover, isolates like L. casei 62 that survived in high counts in the final products, can increase the safety of fermented sausages by competing not only with pathogens but also with the indigenous microbiota and could have a potential functional value for the consumer.