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doi: 10.17113/ftb. 

Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests


Ila Monize Sousa Sales1, Janaína Sousa Barbosa1, Fabelina Karollyne Silva dos Santos1Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva1,2, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira2João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa1,2 and Ana Paula Peron1,3*

1Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Mutagenesis (LaCM), Biological Sciences Academic Course, Campus Senador Helvídio Nunes de Barros (CSHNB), Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Picos, 64049-550 Piauí, Brazil
2Department of Biophysics and Physiology, Postgraduate Programs in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, 64049-550 Piauí, Brazil
3Postgraduate Program in Genetics and Improvement, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, 64049-550 Piauí, Brazil

Article history:
Received  May 2, 2016
Accepted  October 5, 2016

Key words:
aroma and flavour additives, toxicity, cell division, mitotic spindle changes, micronucleus


The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape fl avouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

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