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Bioactivity of Cod and Chicken Protein Hydrolysates before and after in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion



Polona Jamnik1*small orcid_display_4pp, Katja Istenič1small orcid_display_4pp, Tatjana Koštomaj1small orcid_display_4pp, Tune Wulff2small orcid_display_4pp, Margrét Geirsdóttir3small orcid_display_4pp, Annette
Almgren4small orcid_display_4pp,  Rósa Jónsdóttir3small orcid_display_4pp, Hordur G. Kristinsson3,5small orcid_display_4pp and Ingrid Undeland4small orcid_display_4pp



1Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000  Ljubljana, Slovenia
2National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej 1, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
3Matis Ltd, Icelandic Food and Biotech R&D, Vinlandsleid 12, IS-113 Reykjavík, Iceland
4Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology,  Kemivägen 10, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
5Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, 572 Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA




Article history:

Received: December 18, 2016
Accepted: May 3, 2017



Key words:
protein hydrolysates, cod, chicken, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, yeast, proteomics



Summary:
Bioactivity of cod (Gadus morhua) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) protein hydrolysates before and after in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion was investigated using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Both hydrolysates were exposed to in vitro GI digestion prior to cellular exposure to simulate digestion conditions in the human body and therefore investigate the role of modulations in the GI tract on the cell response. The effect of digested and undigested hydrolysates on intracellular oxidation, cellular metabolic energy and proteome level was investigated. No difference in the effect on intracellular oxidation activity was obtained between cod and chicken hydrolysates, while higher effect on intracellular oxidation was provided by digested hydrolysates, with relative values of intracellular oxidation of cod of (70.2±0.8) and chicken of (74.5±1.4) % than by undigested ones, where values of cod and chicken were (95.5±1.2) and (90.5±0.7) %, respectively. Neither species nor digestion had any effect on cellular metabolic energy. At proteome level, digested hydrolysates gave again significantly stronger responses than undigested counterparts; cod peptides here also gave somewhat stronger response than chicken peptides. The knowledge of the action of food protein hydrolysates and their digests within live cells, also at proteome level, is important for further validation of their activity in higher eukaryotes to develop new products, such as in this case chicken and cod muscle-derived peptides as functional ingredients.



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