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Cheese as Functional Food: The Example of Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano



Andrea Summer1,2small orcid_display_4pp, Paolo Formaggioni1*small orcid_display_4pp, Piero Franceschi1small orcid_display_4pp, Federica Di Frangia1small orcid_display_4ppFederico Righi1small orcid_display_4pp
and Massimo Malacarne1,2small orcid_display_4pp



1Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Strada del Taglio 10, IT-43 126 Parma, Italy
2MILC Center, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 59/A, IT-43 124 Parma, Italy


Article history:
Received: February 24, 2017
Accepted: May 10, 2017


Key words:
Italian hard cooked cheese, functional properties, protein and peptides, fat and lipids, carbohydrates and mineral salts, disease prevention


Summary:
Italian hard cooked types of cheese, like Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano, are characterised by positive nutritional qualities. In fact, they contain substances that have particular biological activities, and therefore they can be fully considered, according to the definition given by the European Unit, as ‘functional’ foods. This short review conciselybdescribes these components and the beneficial effects related to their activities. The description of the biologically active components has been organised in the following paragraphs: protein and peptides, fat and lipids, carbohydrates and prebiotics, probiotic bacteria, vitamins, mineral salts, and components of dairy products active in disease prevention. In particular, several known bioactive peptides were found in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese samples: for example, phosphopeptides, which are known for their mineral-binding capacity and vehiculation activity, peptides with immunomodulatory activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides with anti-hypertensive effects. Among lipids, the role of conjugated linoleic acid and other fatty acids present in these cheese types was taken into consideration. The presence of oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties and probiotic bacteria was also described. Finally, particular emphasis was given to highly available calcium and its impact on bone health.


*Corresponding author:  tel3  +39 0521 032 614
                                           fax2  +39 0521 032 611
                                           email3  This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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