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Identification of Differently Regulated Proteins after Fusarium graminearum Infection
of Emmer (Triticum 
dicoccum) at Several Grain Ripening Stages

Christina Trümper1*, Katrin Paffenholz2, Inga Smit1, Philip Kössler3, Petr Karlovsky3,
Hans Peter Braun2 and Elke Pawelzik1

1Quality of Plant Products, Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Georg-August-University
  of Göttingen, DE-37075 Gött ingen, Germany
2Institute of Plant Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Leibniz University of Hannover, DE-30419
  Hannover, Germany
3Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research Division, Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of
  Agriculture, Georg-August University of Gött ingen, DE-37077 Gött ingen, Germany



Article history:
Received: July 29, 2014
Accepted: March 23, 2015



Key words:
Fusarium head blight, grain development, emmer, plant proteomics, defence proteins



Summary:

This study was conducted to improve the knowledge of molecular processes involved in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and emmer in the course of grain ripening. Emmer plants were artificially inoculated with a F. graminearum spore suspension at anthesis. In the course of grain ripening from milk ripe to plant death stage, grains at four phenological growth stages were collected for analysis. The infection degree was evaluated based on the F. graminearum DNA content in emmer grain infolding tissues (glumes and rachis). For proteome analysis the albumin and globulin fractions of emmer grains, consisting of proteins with various functions related to the development and stress response, were analysed regarding the changes due to Fusarium infection by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Altogether, forty-three proteins affected by infection were identified by mass spectrometry. Enzymes detoxifying reactive oxygen species were regulated at all developmental stages. In the early stage of grain development, the abundance of proteins related to stress response, such as 2-Cys peroxiredoxin, a chitinase, a xylanase inhibitor and a spermidine synthase was increased. During later stage of grain development, the abundance of stress-related proteins, such as chitinases, heat shock proteins and an α-amylase inhibitor-like protein, decreased. During all ripening stages, but especially during medium milk stage (BBCH 75) and soft dough stage (BBCH 85), the abundance of proteins related to carbon metabolism, starch and protein biosynthesis as well as photosynthesis increased due to F. graminearum infection. At the plant death stage (BBCH 97) the abundance of only two proteins related to metabolism decreased.




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