Increasing Antioxidant Activity in Food Waste Extracts by β-Glucosidase
1Department of Food Science and Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Basij street, 4918943464 Gorgan, Iran
2Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Daneshgah street, 6714415185 Kermanshah, Iran
3Nano Drug Delivery Research Center, Health Technology Institue, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Daneshgah street, 6714415153 Kermanshah, Iran
4Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Daneshgah street, 6714415153 Kermanshah, Iran
Received: 25 July 2021
Accepted: 2 June 2022
antioxidant activity; β-glucosidase; oleuropein; quercetin; food waste
Research background. Food by-products such as onion peels and olive leaves are rich in bioactive compounds applicable as natural and low-cost sources of antioxidants. Still, these compounds mainly exist in glycosylated form. Often, hydrolysis of glycoside compounds increases their antioxidant activity and health benefits. However, not many studies have been done concerning the β-glucosidase effect, specifically from Aspergillus niger, on glycosylated compounds within these by-products. Also, changes in the antioxidant activity of the mentioned by-products under the effect of β-glucosidase have not been reported yet. Therefore, this study considers the effect of A. niger β-glucosidase on glucoside compounds and the antioxidant activity of onion peel and olive leaf extracts.
Experimental approach. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also, glucose, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured. Moreover, TLC and HPLC analyses were performed before and after the enzymatic hydrolysis.
Results and conclusions. The obtained results showed an increase in the extract antioxidant activity after treatment. Also, β-glucosidase increased the glucose content of the extracts. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed the β-glucosidase efficacy to hydrolyze quercetin glucosides in onion peel extract, and the quercetin concentration increased from (0.48±0.04) mg/mL in the untreated extract to (1.26±0.03) mg/mL in the treated extract (0.5 % m/V) after 3 h of enzymatic hydrolysis at 45 °C. Also, the content of quercetin-3-O-glucoside increased considerably from (1.8±0.1) to (54±9) μg/mL following the enzyme treatment. Moreover, oleuropein in olive leaf extract (1 % m/V) was hydrolyzed completely from (0.382±0.016) to 0 mg/mL by β-glucosidase for 24 h at 50 °C.
Novelty and scientific contribution. This study showed that A. niger β-glucosidase, as a stable enzyme, hydrolyzed quercetin and oleuropein glycosides in onion peel and olive leaf extracts. Thus, A. niger β-glucosidase is a good candidate for processing the food waste and extracting valuable bioactive compounds. Also, the treated extracts with higher antioxidant and biological activity, and without bitter taste can be applicable as potent, natural and cost-effective antioxidants in the food industry.