Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Anthocyanins from Haskap Berries (Lonicera caerulea L.) Using a Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES)
1Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, Dalhousie University, 5273 DaCosta Row, PO Box 15000, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada
2Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Goiás, Rua 227, qd. 68, Setor Leste Universitário, Goiânia, GO, 74605-080, Brazil
Received: 1 July 2020
Accepted: 10 February 2021
anthocyanins, Box-Behnken design, deep eutectic solvent, green extraction, haskap
Research background. Haskap berries are one of the richest natural sources of anthocyanins and their extracts can be used for nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) comprised of food-grade or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) components show promise as natural solvents, but have not been applied to haskap berries. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the extraction of anthocyanins from haskap berries using a DES of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose.
Experimental approach. The experimental approach used ultrasound-assisted extraction with a DES of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose as the solvent to achieve a sustainable green extraction process. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken (BB) experimental design was used to study the effect of varying the extraction temperature/°C, t/min, solvent/sample ratio (V/m)/(mL/g) and the water content in the DES, φ(water)/% (V/V) on the total anthocyanin content (TAC) in the haskap berry extracts.
Results and conclusions. The optimal extraction conditions (75 °C, 10 min, 50.4 mL/g and 90 % water) had a predicted TAC extraction of 21.2 mg/g dry mass (dm) which was experimentally validated with only 7.2 % error. The TAC yield and anthocyanin profiles were similar to those obtained with conventional organic solvents.
Novelty and scientific contribution. This is the first study investigating the use of a food-grade DES comprised of GRAS components for the extraction of anthocyanins from haskap berries. These results indicate that the DES studied (citric acid and D-(+)-maltose) is a suitable alternative solvent for extracting anthocyanins for food-grade applications.
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