Antidiabetic and Hypolipidaemic Action of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana)-Enriched Probiotic Fermented Milk: An in vivo Rat Study
Dairy Microbiology Department, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand Agricultural University, 388110 Anand, Gujarat, India
Received: 28 March 2019
Accepted: 18 June 2020
finger millet, antidiabetic potential, functional food, probiotic, fermented milk
Research background. Diabetes is a chronic multi-system disease having long term consequences to the health of people suffering from it. This study investigates the role of finger millet (Eleusine coracana)-enriched probiotic fermented milk in alleviating the diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Experimental approach. The probiotic strain used in the study was Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463. Study comprised six groups each containing 6 Sprague Dawley rats: two controls (nondiabetic and diabetic), and four diabetic groups fed finger millet-enriched probiotic fermented milk, probiotic fermented milk, finger millet flour or metformin (standard drug). Samples were administered orally for four weeks, and parameters associated with diabetic disorders were studied.
Results and conclusions. Oral administration of finger millet-enriched milk significantly (p<0.001) decreased (64.26 %) the fasting blood glucose level of diabetic rats compared to metformin (56.43 %) and diabetic groups receiving the probiotic fermented milk (18.88 %) and finger millet flour (47.14 %) after four weeks of treatment. The finger millet-enriched milk significantly ameliorated the diabetic symptoms polyphagia and polydipsia and improved body mass. In diabetic control group, body mass was reduced up to 15.60 % at the end of experiment, while in the group receiving the probiotic fermented milk, body mass significantly (p<0.0001) increased by about 5-30 %. Significant (p<0.0001) reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride levels in the groups treated with finger millet flour, finger millet-enriched probiotic fermented milk and probiotic fermented milk was observed compared to diabetic control rats. The probiotic fermented milk enriched with finger millet caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein levels (p<0.0001) and insignificant increase in high-density lipoprotein level. A reversal of altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase was observed in the group receiving the probiotic milk enriched with finger millet. Histological observations of pancreatic tissues and liver showed that the enriched milk prevents more severe changes in the acinar cells and ameliorated the inflammation and alteration in the liver structure to some extent. Therefore, the finger millet-enriched probiotic fermented milk can be a potential functional food in the management of diabetes.
Novelty and scientific contribution. This is the only paper reporting about the antidiabetic potential of finger millet-enriched milk fermented using probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 and Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460. It also shows the synergistic antidiabetic effect of milk and finger millet used in combination, thus offering a novel functional food.