Comparison of Chemical and Enzymatic Interesterification of Fully Hydrogenated Soybean Oil
and Walnut Oil to Produce a Fat Base with Adequate Nutritional and Physical Characteristics

Mariel Farfán, Alfredo Álvarez, Alan Gárate and Pedro Bouchon*

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Department of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, Vicuña Mackenna 4860,
6904411 Santiago, Chile

Article history:
Received August 11, 2014
Accepted March 23, 2015

Key words:
chemical interesterification, enzymatic interesterification, triacylglycerol, hydrogenated soybean oil, walnut oil, solid fat content


The optimal physical, chemical and nutritional properties of natural lipids depend on the structure and composition of triacylglycerols. However, they are not always mutually compatible. Lipid modification is a good way to give them specific functionalities, increase their oxidative stability, or improve their nutritional value. As such, chemical and enzymatic interesterification may be used to modify them and produce structured lipids. In accordance, the aim of this study is to compare chemical and enzymatic interesterification of binary blends of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil, using sodium methoxide or Lipozyme TL IM, respectively, to produce a fat base with adequate nutritional and physical characteristics. Three different mass ratios of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and walnut oil blends (20:80, 40:60 and 60:40) were interesterified and evaluated. Total interesterification was determined by the stabilization of the solid fat content. Chemical reaction of the 20:80 blend was completed in 10 min and of the 40:60 and 60:40 blends in 15 min. Enzymatically interesterified blends were stabilized in 120 min at all of the mass ratios. Complete interesterification significantly reduced the solid fat content of the blends at any composition. Chemical and enzymatically interesterified fully hydrogenated blend of soybean and walnut oil at mass ratio of 40:60 showed the plastic curve of an all-purpose-type shortening rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a high linolenic acid (C18:3n3) content and with zero trans-fatty acids.

*Corresponding author:   email3
                                       tel3   +56 2 354 7962
                                       fax2   +56 2 354 7962


Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

Lilla Szalóki-Dorkó1, György Végvári2*, Márta Ladányi3, Gitt a Ficzek4 and Mónika Stéger-Máté1  

1Department of Food Preservation, Faculty of Food Science, Corvinus University of Budapest, Villányi út 29–43,
 HU-1118 Budapest, Hungary
2Department of Soil Science and Water Management, Faculty of Horticultural Science, Corvinus University of Budapest,
 Villányi út 29–43, HU-1118 Budapest, Hungary
3Department of Biometrics and Agrarinformatics, Faculty of Horticultural Science, Corvinus University of Budapest, Villányi
 út 29–43, HU-1118 Budapest, Hungary
4Department of Fruit Science, Faculty of Horticultural Science, Corvinus University, Corvinus University of Budapest, Villányi
 út 29–43, HU-1118 Budapest, Hungary

Article history
Received: October 6, 2014
Accepted: April 20, 2015

Key words:
Prunus cerasus, half-life of anthocyanins, heat degradation, colour changes, HPLC, juice

Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3) were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C) for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L) than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L). The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18 %, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19 % were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2) of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L) than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L) before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production.

*Corresponding author:   email3
                                       tel3   +36 1 482 6273
                                       fax2   +36 1 482 6336


Control of Penicillium sp. on the Surface of Italian Salami Using Essential Oils

Aline Maria Cenci1, Mariane Lobo Ugalde1,2, Juliana Steffens1*, Eunice Valduga1, Rogério Luis Cansian1
and Geciane Toniazzo1

1University of Erechim, Av. 7 de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS, Brazil
2Federal Institute of Farroupilha, Campus Júlio de Castilhos, São João do Barro Preto s/n, CP. 38, 98130-000
 Júlio de Castilhos, RS, Brazil

Article history:
Received August 26, 2014
Accepted May 6, 2015

Key words:
essential oil, Italian salami, Penicillium sp.

The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro effects of rosemary, salvia, oregano and clove oils at volume fractions of 1000, 750, 500, 250, 100, 50, 26, 10 and 5 μL/mL (100, 75, 50, 25, 10, 5, 3, 1 and 0.5 %) on the growth of contaminating fungi in salami. The in vitro effect of the oils against fungal growth was indicated by zones of inhibition. Rosemary oil showed an inhibition zone of 9.6 mm only at the maximal volume fraction (1000 μL/mL). Salvia oil showed inhibition zones of 12.2, 11.2 and 10.5 mm only at the three highest fractions tested. Based on the inhibition zones, clove oil at 125 and 250 μL/mL, oregano oil at 250 and 500 μL/mL and a mixture (1:1 by volume) of the two oils at 100 μL/mL were selected to be applied to the surface of salamis. A significant reduction of fungal growth in all of the oil-treated samples was confirmed by visual inspection. A sensory analysis revealed that the samples treated with 125 μL/mL of clove oil or 100 μL/mL of a mixture of oregano and clove oil showed no significant flavour differences compared with the control. Carvacrol and eugenol were the principal compounds in oregano and clove oils, respectively, and were most likely responsible for the antifungal activity.

*Corresponding author:   email3  
                                       tel3   +55 54 3520 9000


Biodegradable Zein-Based Blend Films: Structural, Mechanical and Barrier Properties

Carolina Pena Serna1,2* and José Francisco Lopes Filho1

1Food Engineering and Technology Department, São Paulo State University, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil
2Research Group on Agrarian Sciences-GRICA, Faculty of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia

Article history
Received May 14, 2014
Accepted March 17, 2015

Key words:
blend film, biodegradable material, permeability, microstructure, tensile properties

The effect of adding a hydrocolloid on the structural, mechanical and barrier properties of zein-based blend films is evaluated. Zein-oleic acid blend film with added xanthan gum (Z-OA-XG) showed higher water solubility (13.09 %) and opacity (8.49 AU/mm) than zein-oleic acid (Z-OA) film (10.80 % and 5.19 AU/mm, respectively). Furthermore, Z-OA film had greater flexibility with lower Young’s Modulus (YM=5.02 MPa) and higher elongation at break (η=10.62 %); nonetheless, it was less resistant to tension (tensile strength σ=8.5 MPa) than Z-OA-XG film, which showed YM, η and σ of 6.38 MPa, 6.66 % and 10.485 MPa, respectively. Both films had glossy and homogeneous structure with comparable water vapour and oxygen barrier properties around 4.39·10–11 and 1.82·10–13 g/(Pa·s·m), respectively. Based on that, xanthan gum structure influenced mainly mechanical and light barrier properties of zein-oleic acid blend films.

*Corresponding author:   email3
                                       tel3   +57 4 2199 148
                                       fax2   +57 4 2199 141


Facile and Cost-Effective Detection of Saxitoxin Exploiting Aptamer Structural Switching

Karol Alfaro1, Paulina Bustos1, Ciara O´Sullivan2 and Pablo Conejeros1*

1Centro de Investigación y Gestión de Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran
  Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
2Nanobiotechnology and Bioanalysis Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43007
 ES-Tarragona, Spain

Article history:
Received September 22, 2014
Accepted April 28, 2015

Key words:
red tide, paralytic shellfish poison, aptamers, saxitoxin, high resolution melting

A simple method to detect saxitoxin (STX), one of the main components of the paralytic shellfish poison from red tide, has been developed. By using a next generation dye for double-stranded DNA we were able to differentiate fluorescence from STX-binding aptamers when exposed to different concentrations of STX, suggesting a change in aptamer folding upon target binding. The developed method is extremely rapid, only requiring small sample volumes, with quantitative results in the concentration range of 15 ng/mL to 3 μg/mL of STX, with a detection limit of 7.5 ng/mL.

*Corresponding author:   email3
                                       tel3   +56 32 250 8084

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