From the Autochthonous Grape Varieties of the Kastav Region (Croatia) to the Belica Wine
1University of Rijeka, Faculty of Health Studies, Viktora Cara Emina 5, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
2University of Rijeka, Trg braće Mažuranića 10, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
3University of Rijeka, Department of Biotechnology, Radmile Matejčić 2, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
4University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Trg Marka Marulića 19, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
5University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetošimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Received: 2 April 2021
Accepted: 14 November 2021
Belica wine; autochthonous wines; autochthonous grape varieties; polyphenols; FTIR
Research background. Coastal region of Croatia is rich in autochthonous grape varieties. Many of them have been almost abandoned, such as the autochthonous varieties of Kastav (Croatia), used for the production of the Kastavska Belica wine. Therefore, the rationale of the presented study is to characterize autochthonous grape varieties Verdić, Mejsko belo, Jarbola, Divjaka and Brajkovac. In addition, we performed a molecular characterization of the corresponding Belica wines.
Experimental approach. Firstly, the genetic origin and ampelographic and economic characteristics of five autochthonous grape varieties were determined. Standard physicochemical profiles and phenolic components of 12 wines from different producers were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QQQ-MS). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for determination of standard physicochemical parameters.
Results and conclusions. Ampelographic analysis, which includes the data on producing characteristics and cluster and berry composition of the varieties, revealed significant differences between the analysed grape varieties. Results of the physicochemical analysis of the Belica wine showed that all wines met the requirements needed for the production of quality and top quality wines labelled with protected designation of origin (PDO) in Croatian coastal region. The LC-QQQ-MS analysis confirmed the presence of different phenolic components in the Belica wines, where the most prominent phenols were flavonoids from the flavan-3-ol group. Overall, these results showed that autochthonous grapes from the Kastav region can be used for production of wines with added market value due to a growing demand for autochthonous products on the global market.
Novelty and scientific contribution. The presented results give scientific insight and a basis for further determination of the optimal cultivation technology aimed to take advantage of the best characteristics of each variety for production of a wine with desirable features.