Flow Injection Amperometric Evaluation of Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolates with Different Cocoa Content at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode
Tahir Arbneshi1, Arbër Frangu1, Michaela Frühbauerová2, Libor Červenka2, Liridon Berisha1, Kurt Kalcher3 and Milan Sýs2*
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina, Str. Mother Teresa, 10 000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic
3Institute of Chemistry-Analytical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz, Austria
Received: 15 September 2020
Accepted: 6 May 2021
Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, amperometry, boron-doped diamond electrode, flow injection analysis, cocoa mass fraction in chocolate
Research background. The objective of this paper is to introduce an instrumentally simple analytical tool for determination of cocoa solid content in chocolates. This electroanalytical method is based on amperometric oxidation of all present antioxidants in chocolates at boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) that is integrated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) wall-jet electrode system.
Experimental approach. As part of optimisation, thirteen commonly occurring antioxidants were investigated using cyclic voltammetry at BDDE in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer with different methanol (MeOH) content. Working parameters, such as MeOH volume fraction, flow rate and detection potential, were optimised. Principally, the height of the oxidation peak (current response) representing the oxidation of the sum of antioxidants (total antioxidant content; TAC) was expressed as Trolox equivalents.
Results and conclusions. For analytical purpose, a linear range from 5 to 100 mg/L described by regression equation and characterised by high correlation coefficient R2=0.9994 was achieved. Obtained high positive correlation between the determined values of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and cocoa mass fractions characterised by correlation coefficient of 0.9187 for eight randomly selected samples (one white, two milk, and five dark chocolates) confirmed that cocoa solids represent the main source of antioxidants (reducing agents).
Novelty and scientific contribution. The research demonstrates that TEAC values could be considered as an additional marker of cocoa content in the chocolate analysis to the commonly used theobromine (authenticity of food products). The developed FIA method could therefore serve as simple analytical tool in the food quality control.