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Present and New Vaccines for Human Use

V. Silobrčić


Institute of Immunology, Rockefellerova 10, 41000 Zagreb, Croatia


Article history:

Received June 17, 1994
Accepted September 26, 1994

Summary:

Vaccination in the least expensive and the most effective medical procedure. During the last 20 years, the percentage of vaccinated children has risen from 5 to 80 and this resulted in a 50% reduction of morbidity and mortality rate from childrens' infectious diseases. Vaccines against measles, tetanus, pertussis, diphtheria, tuberculosis and poliomyelitis have been most important in achieving this result. These vaccines are very effective, with side effects of acceptable incidence and severity. Yet, their improvement is desirable, to make than more thcnnostabile (long-lasting transport), contain more immunogens (multiple protection with single application), applicable orally and as soon after birth as possible (early protection). Research on vaccines for application to human (both children and adults) is directed toward improvement of existing vaccines and introduction of new ones. Because of these two goals, new technologies for preparation and application, new imunoadjuvants and new vaccines against: viruses, cancer, autoimmune diseases, parasites and AIDS arc investigated. As an example, research in these three fields is described: protein carriers of vaccinal immunogens (synthetic, protcosomcs, recombinant BCG), immunoadjuvants (nonionic polymers, saponins, monoclonal antibodies), and new ways of vaccine application (microencapsulation, attenuated viruses). It is concluded that new technologies provide opportunities for completely new approaches to preparation and administration of vaccines, at the same time enabling discoveries of new basic concepts of functioning of the immune system in men.

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