Hydroethanolic Extract of Grape Peel from Vitis labrusca Winemaking Waste: Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Cristiana F. G. Silva1, Victor Fattori2, Caroline R. Tonetti1, Marcos A. S. Ribeiro3, Ricardo L. N. Matos4, Jéssica B. Carra1, Eduardo C. Meurer3, Elisa Y. Hirooka5, Janice A. Rafael6, Sandra R. Georgetti4, Marcela M. Baracat4, Waldiceu A. Verri Jr2 and Nilton S. Arakawa1,4*
1Department of Chemistry, State University of Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid, Km 380, Campus Universitário, 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brazil
2Department of Pathology, State University of Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid, Km 380, Campus Universitário, 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brazil
3Department of Exact Sciences, Federal University of Paraná, R. Dr. João Maxímiano, 426, Vila Operária, 86900-000 Jandaia do Sul, PR, Brazil
4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Londrina, Av. Robert Koch, 60, Operária, 86038-440, Londrina, PR, Brazil
5Department of Food Science and Technology, State University of Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid, Km 380, Campus Universitário, 86057-970, Londrina, PR, Brazil
6Pharmaceutical Science Course, Filadelfia University Center, Av. Juscelino Kubitschek, 1626, Centro, 86020-000, Londrina, PR, Brazil
Received: 30 November 2020
Accepted: 12 November 2021
anti-inflammatory activity; antinociceptive effect; Vitis labrusca extract; winemaking waste
Research background. Extracts from grape pomace, including the wine, show many biological effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Unfortunately, winemakers discard the bagasse, so the waste is not exploited, although it contains bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The work aims to analyze the hydroethanolic extract of peels from Vitis labrusca agro-industrial waste and to evaluate its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is relevant for reusing a residue and adding value to the grape economic chain.
Experimental approach. A representative sample of pomace was obtained and the peels were used to produce the extract. The phenolic compounds were determined by mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode and Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, using gallic acid as standard. The biological analyses were carried out using mice orally treated with crude extract at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. We evaluated mechanical hyperalgesia by the von Frey method, thermal heat hyperalgesia using a hot plate at 55 °C, paw edema using a Vernier caliper, and neutrophil recruitment by measurement of myeloperoxidase activity. The nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity were evaluated by biochemical analyses using blood samples that were collected after the Vitis labrusca administration.
Results and conclusions. In all wet winemaking residues peel mass fraction was 75 %, and in dry residues 59 %. We identified nine anthocyanins (3-O-glucosides: peonidin, delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin; 3-p-coumaroyl-glucosides: cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin and malvidin, and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside), five flavonoids (apigenin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7-glucoside, quercetin-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-glucoside and myricetin-3-rutinoside), and mass fraction of phenolic compounds, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, was 26.62 mg/g. In vivo assays showed that Vitis labrusca extract at mass fractions 100 and 300 mg/kg reduced carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, 50 % of the paw edema, and neutrophil recruitment. In addition, there were no indications of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Our extract obtained from winemaking residue has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, related at least in part to the presence of phenolic compounds, and it is not toxic to renal and hepatic tissues.
Novelty and scientific contribution. This bio-product can be used as an alternative to synthetic anti-inflammatory agents with the same pharmacological potential and fewer side effects. We demonstrated that Vitis labrusca winemaking waste can be used for the production of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory products (nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetics) without toxicity, contributing to the environmental economy.