Iron Encapsulation by Deacetylated Glucomannan as an Excipient Using the Gelation Method: Characteristics and Controlled Release
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50239, Indonesia
2Institute of Food and Remedies Biomaterial (INFARMA), Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50239, Indonesia
Received: 10 January 2021
Accepted: 13 November 2021
glucomannan deacetylation; gelation method; iron encapsulation
Research background. Deacetylation and the use of CaCl2 as a gelation agent improve the performance of glucomannan as iron encapsulant. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of deacetylation degree and pH of gelation on the characteristics of encapsulated iron using gelation in CaCl2 solution.
Experimental approach. Glucomannan was deacetylated at various NaOH concentrations and was subsequently utilized as an iron excipient using the pipette-dropped gelation method in CaCl2 solution to directly investigate the process of encapsulation by gelation. The pH of the gelation solution was also changed. The beads were subsequently vacuum-dried.
Results and conclusions. Deacetylation led to lower endothermic peak of the glucomannan than that of the native one. The deacetylation degree and pH of gelation did not significantly affect the diameter of the beads but influenced their appearance and physical characteristics. The backbone of glucomannan was not changed by either the deacetylation degree or the pH of the gelation. The highest encapsulation efficiency (73.27 %) was observed in the encapsulated iron using the glucomannan matrix of the highest deacetylation degree (82.56 %) and gelated in the solution at pH=10. The highest deacetylation degree of glucomannan caused the highest swelling of the beads, which led to the release of a higher amount of iron. Glucomannan deacetylation improves the iron encapsulation and enables higher iron release at pH=6.8 than at pH=1.2. The Weibull model was the best-fitting model to represent the profile of iron release from the deacetylated glucomannan matrix using the gelation method (R2>0.93) at pH=6.8 and pH=1.2.
Novelty and scientific contribution. This result supports the application of deacetylated glucomannan using NaOH as a pH-sensitive matrix for iron encapsulation and CaCl2 solution as gelation agent. A higher deacetylation degree leads to the release of a higher amount of iron from the matrix. The encapsulation does not only protect the iron but also delivers it to the absorption site and controls its release, which is useful in supplement formulation or food fortification. The results show that the deacetylated glucomannan as the matrix holds more iron in encapsulation process.