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Enhanced Microencapsulation of C-Phycocyanin from Arthrospira by Freeze-Drying with Different Wall Materials

Wanida Pan-utai1*orcid tiny and Siriluck Iamtham2,3,4,5,6orcid tiny

1Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

2Department of Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand

3Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand

4Center of Excellence on Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Bangkok 10900, Thailand

5Center for Advanced Studies in Tropical Natural Resource, NRU-KU, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

6Research Unit of Orchid Tissue Culture, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand

Article history:

Received: 2 January 2020

Accepted: 2 December 2020

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Key words:

phycocyanin, Arthrospira, microencapsulation, freeze-drying, antioxidant properties


Research background. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) as a water-soluble blue pigment was extracted from microalga Arthrospira. C-PC could be a good substitute for synthetic pigments with high antioxidant activity. However, C-PC is unstable due to sensitivity to temperature, light, pH, and oxygen; therefore applications of C-PC in food and other products are limited. Microencapsulation of C-PC using freeze-drying is a solution to this problem and is considered a suitable method for drying heat-sensitive pigment.

Experimental approach. C-phycocyanin was extracted from Arthrospira platensis. C-phycocyanin microcapsules were modified by freeze-drying, with different ratios at 0-100 % of maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA) used as microencapsulation wall materials. The powders produced were evaluated for physical properties including moisture content and water activity, solubility, hygroscopicity, bulk density, colour appearance, particle morphology and size distribution. Thermal stability and antioxidant activity of freeze-dried C-PC microencapsulated powders were also assessed.

Results and conclusions. Freeze-dried C-PC microencapsulated powders with maltodextrin and gum Arabic as wall materials gave high encapsulation efficiency of around 99 %. At higher gum Arabic percentage, moisture content decreased and water activity improved. Maltodextrin gave higher solubility of C-PC powders whereas gum Arabic led to a similar colour of C-PC without microencapsulation. Freeze-dried C-PC microencapsulated powders were composed of different sized microparticles regardless of the combination of wall materials with amorphous glassy shapes. Thermal stability of encapsulated C-PC increased and also showed high antioxidant properties. 

Novelty and scientific contribution. C-PC microcapsules that maintain colourant stability with high antioxidant levels and resistance to high temperatures can be applied in a wide variety of products and also in the food industry.

*Corresponding author: +6629428629

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Incorporation of Caprylic Acid into a Single Cell Oil Rich in Docosahexaenoic Acid for the Production of Specialty Lipids

Daniela Kanno Mathias1orcid tiny, Jacqueline Piazentin Costa1orcid tiny, Carolina Rodrigues Calvo1orcid tiny, Roberta Claro da Silva2orcid tiny, Attilio
3orcid tiny,  Nadia Segura4orcid tiny,  Iván Jachmanián4orcid tiny, Luiz Antonio Gioielli1orcid tiny and Juliana Neves Rodrigues Ract1*
orcid tiny

1Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580, 05508-000 São Paulo, Brazil

2Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, 1601 E. Market Street, NC 27411 Greensboro, USA

3Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Pole of Chemical Engineering, Via Opera Pia 15, I-16145 Genoa, Italy

4Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Chemistry, University of the Republic (UDELAR), Av. Gral Flores 2124, Casilla de Correos 1157, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay

Article history:

Received: 16 October 2019

Accepted: 24 November 2020

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Key words:

single cell oil, new source of docosahexaenoic acid, structured lipids, acidolysis, caprylic acid


Research background. New sources of docosahexaenoic acid have recently been investigated aiming at infant formula fortification and dietary supplementation, among which the docosahexaenoic acid single cell oil, which contains 40-50 % of this acid.

Experimental approach. For this purpose, such an oil was blended with caprylic acid in molar proportions ranging from 1:1 to 5:1 and the blends were interesterified using either Novozym 435 or Lipozyme TL IM as the catalyst. The influence of the amount of excess free caprylic acid in the substrate, as well as the type of enzyme on the triacylglycerol rearrangement resulting from the synthesis of the structured lipids were evaluated.

Results and conclusions. The regiospecific lipase Lipozyme TL IM seemed to induce transesterification among single cell oil triacylglycerols preferably to acidolysis with caprylic acid, which was directly proportional to the ratio of this acid in the substrate. In reactions catalyzed by the non-regiospecific lipase Novozym 435, a higher incorporation of caprylic acid by single cell oil triacylglycerols was observed when compared with Lipozyme TL IM, independently of the oil:caprylic acid molar ratio.

Novelty and scientific contribution. These results revealed the importance of combining the choice of the type of lipase, either regiospecific or not, with the proportions of excess free fatty acids in acidolysis reactions when aiming to produce structured lipids as a source of docosahexaenoic acid.

*Corresponding author: +551130912384

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Effect of Ultrasonic Pretreatment on Melon Drying and Computational Fluid Dynamic Modelling of Thermal Profile

João Henrique Fernandes da Silvaorcid tiny, José Sabino da Silva Netoorcid tiny, Edilene Souza da Silvaorcid tinyDanilo Emídio de Souza Cavalcantiorcid tiny,
Patrícia Moreira Azoubel*orcid tiny and Mohand Benachourorcid tiny

Federal University of Pernambuco, Department of Chemical Engineering, Av. Prof. Arthur de Sá, s/n, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE,

50740-521, Brazil


Article history:

Received: 22 May 2020

Accepted: 9 November 2020

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Key words:

computational fluid dynamics, melon, ultrasound, drying, heat transfer, mass transfer


Research backgroundDrying is one of the most traditional processes of food preservation. Optimizing the process can result in a competitive product on the market regarding its price and quality. A common method in use as a pretreatment to drying is ultrasound. The goal of this work is to analyze different drying methods with and without applying ultrasound (US) pretreatment on heat and mass transfer, simulating numerically the temperature profile by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). 

Experimental approachThe melon slices were pretreated with ultrasound for 10 (US10), 20 (US20) and 30 (US30) min at 25 kHz, and the water loss and solid gain were evaluated. Samples were dried at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70 °C). The effective diffusivity was estimated, and experimental data were modelled using empirical models. The airflow in the dryer and the temperature profile in the melon slice were simulated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD). 

Results and conclusions. Ultrasound pretreatment reduced the drying time from 25 % (samples US20 and US30 at 50 °C) to 40 % (samples US20 and US30 at 70 °C). The two-term exponential model presented the best fit to the experimental data, and the diffusivity coefficients showed a tendency to increase as the time of exposure of the melon to ultrasonic waves increased. Pretreatment water loss and solid gain behaviour and drying kinetic and diffusion data were used to choose the best experimental conditions to be simulated with CFD. The heat transfer modelling through CFD showed that the temperature distribution along the melon slice was representative. Therefore, the profile obtained via CFD satisfactorily describes the drying process.

Novelty and scientific contribution. The use of simulation tools in real processes allows the monitoring and improvement of existing technologies, such as food drying processes, that involve complex mechanisms, making it difficult to obtain some data. Application of CFD in the drying processes of fruits and vegetables is still very recent, being a field little explored. There is no record in the literature of the use of CFD for the drying of melon.

*Corresponding author: +558121268583

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Magnetic Biocatalysts of Pectinase: Synthesis by Macromolecular Cross-Linker for Application in Apple Juice Clarification

Marjan Nouriorcid tiny and Faramarz Khodaiyanorcid tiny

Bioprocessing and Biodetection Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


Article history:

Received: 8 April 2020

Accepted: 29 September 2020

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Key words:

magnetic microparticles, pectinase, chitosan, kefiran, apple juice


Research backgroundPectinase enzyme has become a valuable compound in beverage industry. One of the most significant concepts to overcome the drawbacks of using industrial enzymes is their immobilization. In the present study, magnetic chitosan microparticles were utilized as a substrate for pectinase immobilization. New methods of enzyme immobilization involve the use of non-chemical cross-linkers between the enzyme and the substrate. The aim of this study is to immobilize the pectinase enzyme using polyaldehyde kefiran as a macromolecular cross-linker on magnetic particles.

Experimental approachPectinase was immobilized in four steps: relative oxidation of kefiran and its application as a cross-linker, production of magnetic iron(II) iron(III) oxide (Fe3O4) microparticles, coating of magnetic Fe3O4 microparticles with chitosan, and immobilization of the enzyme on the substrate, prepared by the use of oxidized kefiran cross-linker. Parameters such as cross-linking concentration, time and ratio of chitosan magnetic microparticles to enzyme were optimized. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to identify the groups and investigate the structures. The biochemical properties (stability of enzyme activity at different pH, temperature and time), enzyme reusability, kinetic parameters (Km and νmax) and apple juice turbidity, using free and immobilized pectinase enzymes, were also measured.

Results and conclusionsCross-linker concentration, cross-linking time and the ratio of magnetic Fe3O4 microparticles with chitosan to enzyme were important factors in activity recovery of pectinase. FTIR analysis correctly identified functional groups in the structures. The results showed that after enzyme stabilization, the particle size and molecular mass, respectively, increased and decreased the magnetic saturation strength. According to the thermal kinetic study, the activity of the immobilized pectinase was higher than of its free form. The findings of this study indicate excellent stability and durability of the immobilized pectinase. Finally, a magnetic pectinase micro-biocatalyst was used to clarify apple juice, which reduced turbidity during processing.

Novelty and scientific contributionThis study investigates the usage of kefiran oxidized as a new cross-linker for the immobilization of pectinase enzyme. Magnetic pectinase micro-biocatalyst has a good potential for industrial applications in the food industry, with high thermal stability.

*Corresponding author: +98 26 3224 8804
  +98 26 3224 9453

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