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Influence of D-Amino Acids in Beer on Formation of Uric Acid

Yuhe Kanorcid tiny, Zhikun Zhangorcid tiny, Kunhao Yang1orcid tiny, Mengru Ti1orcid tiny, Yongqi Ke1orcid tiny, Li Wu1,2*orcid tiny, Jingkui Yang1*orcid tiny and Yujian He1,2*orcid tiny

1School of Chemical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.380 Huaibei Zhuang, Huairou District, 100049 Beijing, PR China
2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Peking University,
 100191 Beijing, PR China

Article history:
Received: 4 September 2018
Accepted: 10 May 2019

Key words:
uric acid, beer, D-amino acid, hydroxyl radicals, DNA damage

Excessive intake of beer could increase serum uric acid levels, leading to high risk of gout, which was previously attributed to high purine content in beer. Recent reports that purine-rich vegetables and bean products do not cause higher uric acid levels do not support this theory. Why excessive intake of beer could increase a high risk of gout has been unclear. Other factors affecting the accumulation of uric acid in the blood have been explored. Beer contains relatively high levels of D-amino acids due to the racemization of L-amino acids induced by food processing. D-amino acid was catalyzed by D-amino acid oxidase to produce H2O2, which is further oxidized in the presence of Fe2+ to produce hydroxyl radicals, resulting in DNA damage and formation of a large amount of purine bases, which are oxidized to uric acid by a series of enzymes. Some food ingredients, such as 
vitamins and I, prompt D-amino acids to form uric acid. d-amino acids in beer are one of the key factors responsible for the increase in uric acid levels. The biological response of D-amino acids could explain gout occurrence in beer drinkers.

*Corresponding author:  tel3
                                           email3 (Li W)
                                          tel3  +8613693049534
                                           email3 (Yang J)
                                          tel3  +8613691472876
                                           email3 (He Y)


These authors contributed equally to this work


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