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Comparative Study of Inhibitory Potential of Dietary Phytochemicals Against Quorum Sensing Activity of and
Biofilm Formation
by Chromobacterium violaceum 12472, and Swimming and Swarming Behaviour of
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 

Elif Burcu Bali1*orcid tiny, Kübra Erkan Türkmen2,3orcid tiny, Demet Erdönmez4orcid tiny and Necdet Sağlam5orcid tiny  

1Gazi University, Vocational School of Health Services, Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Programme of Medical Laboratory Techniques, 06830 Gölbaşı, Ankara, Turkey 
2Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Faculty of Science Department of Biology, 70100 Karaman, Turkey 
3Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science Department of Biology and Biotechnology, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey 
4Aksaray University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, 68100 Aksaray, Turkey 
5Hacettepe University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey  

Article history
Received: 27 April 2018 
Accepted: 8 February 2019 

Key words
phytochemicals, anti-quorum sensing, Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, antibiofilm activity 

Quorum sensing (QS) and biofilm formation are important mechanisms related to antibiotic resistance of many pathogens. Alternative treatments are needed to prevent recurrent or chronic infections caused by multi-resistant pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate and compare the inhibitory potential of the dietary phytochemicals: curcumin, quercetin, apigenin, pyrogallol, gallic acid and luteolin against QS of and biofilm formation by Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and the swimming and swarming abilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Anti-QS potential of the phytochemicals was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using C. violaceum via the disk diffusion assay based on violacein pigment inhibition at the subminimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 46.87 to 750 μg/mL. The results of anti-QS and antibiofilm activities on C. violaceum demonstrated that all the phytochemicals except pyrogallol and gallic acid inhibited violacein production (from (11.0±0.1) to (88.2±0.1) %) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the biofilm formation was also significantly inhibited (p<0.05) in the presence of all the phytochemicals ((1.38±0.08)–(84.2±0.2) %). In the present study, the results revealed that quercetin, curcumin, apigenin and luteolin could be promising QS and biofilm inhibitory agents against the C. violaceum 12472 biosensor system. Our findings also suggest that all the phytochemicals, especially curcumin, quercetin and pyrogallol, might be anti-pathogenic agents against P. aeruginosa PAO1 infections due to the ability to control QS. However, more comprehensive studies at the molecular level, explaining their anti-QS mechanisms, need to be conducted to confirm these results and identify the genes involved.  

*Corresponding author:  tel3  +903124845635175 

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